Orbital bombardment was a military strategy used many times throughout the history of the galaxy.
The most effective means of doing this was using several capital ships to target a specific area on a planet. The Mandalorians were very adept at using this in the Mandalorian Wars. The planet Telos was also attacked by orbital bombardment. Darth Malak used this to attack the planet of Taris, while looking for Bastila Shan.
Orbital bombardment was also frequently used in the Rebellion Era, and was a factor during the Battle of Kashyyyk. Darth Vader planned to use this strategy against the Rebel Base at Hoth. However, the planetary shield and planetary ion cannon technology of that era enabled planetary defences to wield off the bombardment. Often, strike teams and special forces would be dispatched to the planet in order to sabotage such defences prior to the initiation of the bombardment.
While common for the Imperial Navy, the New Republic Defense Force was reluctant to engage in orbital bombardment, for fear of civilian casualties. During the Yuuzhan Vong War, however, General Wedge Antilles ordered the Lusankya to bombard Borleias in an attempt to save the New Republic's ground base during the Battles of Borleias, and Admiral Traest Kre'fey was also made orbital bombardment one of his standing orders in the prelude to the Battle of Ebaq 9.